The purpose of this article is to clarify the function of Rule 12(b)(6) under liberalized pleading. To achieve this clarification, this article examines the functions of Rule 12(b)(6) by using a categorization approach. Before entering the categorization, the previous controversies over the two opposing directions should be also considered. Accordingly, the functions of Rule 12(b)(6) were researched by reviewing several fundamental questions concerning this obscure Rule.
Yoichiro Hamabe, Functions of Rule 12(b)(6) in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure: A Categorization Approach, 15 Campbell L. Rev. 119 (1993).